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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 



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MARCH 1, 1937 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 









OF- INDIAN -AFFAIRS 

WASHINGTON, P«C - 



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INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OP MARCH 1, 1937 

Volume IV Number 14 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Two Montana. Delegations In Washington 9 

Oklahoma Personnel Holds Series Of Meetings 11 

"Navajo Roving Bathtub" Explained Gurdon Straus 12 

Red River Carts 15 

New Interior Building Soon To Be Occupied 17 

Indian Designed Rubber Mats To Appear In New 

Interior Bui lding 18 

Address Before Annual Meeting Of Home 

Missions Councils Willard W. Beatty 20 

Second Group Of Chief Clerks Meets in 

Washington 25 

A Monument To Cooperation E. L. Berry 26 

Brazilian Protection For The Indians Vincenzo Petrullo 27 

Cover Design 33 

Canning Projects Within Indian School Programs .Cleora C. Helbing 35 

Why I Say "Yes" To The Constitution And 

By-Laws Lydia Oarum 37 

Between Me And Starvation 38 

Prehistoric Mounds Near Macon, Georgia • 39 

A 3023-Mile Basket Ball Trip Wayne T. Pratt 40 

Indian Language Used During World War 41 

Revival Of Old Winnebago Arts Carrie A. Lyf ord 42 

Use Of Steel Traps Forbidden On Indian Lands 43 

Nez Perce Joseph - A Book Review Allan G. Harper 44 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 



A HOP I HARVEST DANCE 




lonerijo tfo 



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By Lorenao Horace, A Hopi Student At The Albuquerque Indian School, N. M. 




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VOLUML IV- -MAR.GH 1, 1937- -NUJADER. 14- 

Indians, it is often said, have in the Supreme Court 
their best friend. So far as courts go, the statement certainly 
is true; and looking at Indian Affairs across the hundred and five 
years since the John Marshall decision on the Cherokee case, one 
recognizes that the Supreme Court has "been the Indians' best friend 
not only among courts "but within the Government. 

Indians, therefore, will be particularly concerned over 
the debate now raging in connection with the President's court mes- 
sage to Congress. 



All of those who are crying to high heaven against the 
President's proposal, admit that some of the reforms he is advo- 
cating are necessary. The attack against the President's proposal 
strikes chiefly at the part which deals with membership upon the 
Supreme Court. Efforts are being made to break this part of the 
reform off from the other parts. 



A legislative analogy, which will he understood hy In- 
dians, is here mentioned. 

As Indians well know, the Secretary of the Interior as 
guardian of Indian property exercises powers very "broad indeed. 
These powers are necessary to effective guardianship. They are 
not enumerated here; enough that they are broad, and usually are 
unreviewable. 

But one power, and, as it happens, the power which the 
Indians most need for the Secretary to have and to exercise, is 
not granted under existing law. 

This is the power to do those things which would get 
the allotted lands hack into a state of consolidation, of simpli- 
fied legal status, of availability for Indian use and of economi- 
cal administration. 

Such a result is necessary if the lands (a) are to be 
used by the Indians and (b) are not ultimately to pass to the 
auction block, while (c) in the meantime they are costing so much 
to administer that frequently the administrative outlay exceeds 
the income yield from the land. 

Inasmuch as the value of Indian allotted lands far ex- 
ceeds the value of Indian unallotted land, and more Indians are 
dependent for their future upon allotted than upon unallotted land, 
the importance of getting some device for salvaging the allotted 
lands is too clear to need argument. 



The Wheeler-Koward, or Indian Reorganization Act, was in- 
troduced in 1934. One of its many essential features was language 
giving the Secretary of the Interior power to bring the allotted 
lands into a condition where they could be used by the Indians, 
could be economically administered, could yield increased revenue 
in cash or kind to the Indians, and could be prevented from going 
to fee patent. The vested right of allottees to their equities 
was fully protected by the language, and the guardianship authority 
of the Secretary was not increased in principle by the language. 

A great uproar, directed against the whole of the Wheeler- 
Howard Bill, made of the allotment section its principal talking- 
point. Fear was thrown into the allotted Indians - fear that their 
holdings might be confiscated, that land might be taken from those 
who have and given to those who have not. No such consequence was 
intended or could have followed from the language of the bill, but 
t he fear-nerve had been struck as though with a lash ; reason and 
fact were of little avail; and in short, to get the other necessary 
things contained in the bill, the exceedingly important language 
about allotments was allowed to be stricken out. 

Therefore, today as three years ago, Indian allotted 
lands are in thousands of cases unusable by the Indians; administra- 
tive costs, measured against land yield, continue to increase each 
year; each year a larger part of all the allotted lands drifts into 
the heirship status and then into the triple-complicated heirship 
status that comes with the third generation. Through consequences 



of allotment, which the original Wheeler-Howard Bill would have 
corrected "but which remain uncorrected, more land is being lost 
to Indian use each year than can possibly he compensated for through 
new land purchase under the Indian Reorganization Act. 



The dehate over the President's Court proposals is taking 
a course not unlike the dehate over the Wheeler-Howard Act in 1934. 
Let us pray that the course of legislation will not he the same. 

The President's Court proposals are numerous, and they 
are important at all levels, hut clearly the most important of them, 
and likewise the most reasonable of all of them, is the proposal 
for additional judges upon the Supreme Court. 

So conservative, actually, is the Supreme Court feature 
of the President's plan, that it turns out to have been proposed 
twenty-four years ago by none other than that member of the present 
Supreme Court who is ranked with the ultra-conservatives, Mr. Justice 
McReynolds. He made the proposal when Attorney General, in 1913. 

There is no constitutional requirement as to the number 
of Supreme Court Justices. The number has been varied from time 
to time by Congress. 

Whenever, through death or resignation, a vacancy -arises 
upon the Supreme Court, it is the President who nominates the new 
judge. As most of the judges are elderly, it follows that any Presi- 
dent at any time, as a mere result of deaths, might be able to "pack" 



the Supreme Court. If resignations and deaths happen not to come, 
then the President and Congress may find themselves confronted by 
a court "packed" by some earlier President whose political philo- 
sophy may have "been the opposite of the prevailing philosophy and 
whose choice of judges may have "been made at an earlier and differ- 
ent economic or social epoch. 

A word as to the mere dispatch of business by the Supreme 
Court with its present number of members. The critics of the Presi- 
dent's plan are announcing that the Supreme Court is not behindhand 
on its calendars. That is true, because, since February 13, 1925, 
the right of a hearing of the Supreme Court has been drastically 
curtailed. For a vast range of cases, this right has been made in- 
to a privilege, rarely accorded, and no longer a right. The ag- 
grieved party petitions the Supreme Court to review his case. About 
eight hundred of these pet itions for a writ of certiorari go before 
the Court each year. Frequently the ca,ses are momentous ones, and 
generally they are complicated cases with a long anterior record. 
The appeals admitted as a matter of rare privilege are likely to 
be just as important and just as complicated as the smaller class 
of appeals admitted as a matter of right. Almost never is oral 
argument permitted upon these petitions. Usually they are denied, 
and almost never is an explanation vouchsafed by the Court. There 
is a widespread belief that these petitions often are disposed of 
by a single judge, and even that the research leading to a decision 
is frequently delegated to secretaries. The common belief almost 



necessarily is a correct belief; this follows from a merely- 
statistical consideration of the number of petitions disposed 
of each year. 

There comes to mind, as an illustration, a single one 
of the approximately eight hundred petitions denied by the Supreme 
Court in one of the years five or six years back. 

This was a noted case arising out of a century-old con- 
flict over land titles in the Pueblo country of New Mexico. 

Both the courts and Congress had recognized that the 
Pueblo Indians' titles to various areas had not been extinguished. 

Congress had legislated that certain of these titles 
could be extinguished, but that compensation must be granted. And 
pursuant to this legislation, the titles had been extinguished; 
but in certain important instances no compensation had been granted. 

In other cases, the Pueblo Lands Board had ignored the 
findings of its own appraisers and arbitrarily had slashed the 
compensation. 

Thus, assuming that the Constitution applied to Indians, 
there was an apparent denial of due process and a taking of proper- 
ty without compensation. 

The case was handled for the Indians by competent at- 
torneys. It was brief in exten so, and behind the brief lay a vol- 
ume of record, and behind that, prior Supreme Court opinions point- 
ing toward action favorable to the Indians if a petition for 
certiorari were granted. The essential subject matter, which would 



need to have been read to determine the admissibility of the appeal, 
ran into hundreds of pages. 

Knowing the policy of the Supreme Court toward petitions 
for certiorari , and knowing that under conditions as they existed, 
this policy was in fact a necessary one, because otherwise the 
Court would be swamped utterly by the cases admitted for review, 
those who prepared the Pueblos' petition and those who financed 
it entertained almost no hope of getting the case into the Supreme 
Court at all. They justifiably believed that if they did get into 
the Court they would win. 

It was a matter of course to have the petition denied 
and denied without explanation. And out of court, without a hear- 
ing, without a word as to the reason why, went this case along with 
hundreds of others at the October term of the Court. Later, Congress , 
acting on a unanimous report by its Senate and House Indian Committee , 
provided justice and gave the compensation whi ch the Court had re - 
fused to hear arguments about . Even the Budget concurred. Such remedy 
is of course not to be hoped for in 999 of every 1,000 slighted cases. 

The above case will help Indians to realize that there are 
multiple reasons for the President's proposal that added Justices 
shall be placed on the Supreme Court, to increase its power to do 
business and to help bear the load of elder Justices. 

The fundamental reason for the President's Supreme Court 
proposal clearly is one of social policy - it is to' insure a court 
possessed of a frame of mind receptive toward modern solutions for 



modern problems. 

But in addition, it is a proposal to get the Supreme 
Court into a shape, in the matter of sheer man-power, to perform 
its functions as a Court of Last Eesort, passing as a real Court 
upon constitution controversies applied to particular cases. The 
Court as now made up could not meet its responsibility if every 
Justice among the nine were a Solomon of wisdom and a Napoleon of 
execution. 

It was never the intent of the Constitution or of the 
people that the Court should delegate to one of its members the 
practical determination of issues in litigation under conditions 
where he, in turn, would be compelled to delegate to a secretary 
much or all of the research upon which his decision would be 
predicated. 

It is no friendly act, either to the Constitution or 
the present Court, to demand that such an un-American way of 
handling business shall continue to be forced upon the Supreme 
Court. 



Is the debate over the Supreme Court a proper subject 
matter for an editorial in INDIANS AT WORK? Decidedly, yes. In 
my first paragraph, Indians are reminded of their own peculiar in- 
debtedness to and dependency on the Supreme Court. But in addi- 
tion, Indians are wholly concerned with the preservation and the 



increase of efficient, productive democracy in the United States. 
No de"bate, reaching, as the Court debate does, to the heart of 
the human and social problem of our country, can be outside the 
discussions and concern of Indians - the most recently enfranchised 
of our citizens, and the individuals of the whole country most de- 
pendent upon the Federal institution. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



TWO MONTANA DELEGATIONS IN WASHINGTON 



The Blackfeet delegation has been in Washington during the first 
two weeks of February, working, mainly, on the possibility of reopening the 
Blackfeet irrigation project, work on which has been discontinued for the 
past three years. A request for funds for rehabilitating the project is 
under consideration, and it is hoped that the 1938 appropriation bill will 
contain the necessary appropriation. 

The project would be used for the raising of winter feed and would 
make possible the resettlement of some of the Indian families now living in 
Browning. Members of the delegation were Joe Brown, Richard Grant, Leo 
Kennerly and Wright Hagerty. They were accompanied by Superintendent Graves. 

The Crow delegation, comprising Harry Whiteman, Frank Yarlott and 
Tom Yellowtail, accompanied by Superintendent Robert Yellowtail, has been 
in Washington during February. They took up various problems with the Wash- 
ington Office staff dealing with all aspects of the reservation nrogram. 




10 



OKLAHOMA PERSONNEL HOLDS SERIES OF MEETINGS 

Indian Service meetings in Oklahoma from January 29 to February 5 
culminated in a gathering at Tulsa which was attended by the largest number 
of Indian Service employees ever gathered together in one room. 

First of the meetings were those held at Chilocco on January 28 
to 30 primarily for Oklahoma agricultural teachers. The program included 
various phases: Observation of work being done at the Chilocco Indian Agri- 
cultural School, followed by discussions of Chilocco methods; papers and 
discussions on agricultural training for young Indians and specific discussions 
of training techniques. 

On February 1 and 2, at Chilocco, superintendents and officials 
from various Indian boarding schools met to discuss the use and extension 
of use of scrip among Indian schoolchildren. It is felt that the use of 
scrip will foster an understanding of money values, thrift and self-reliance 
ajnong these children, many of whom have never handled even small sums of 
money in regular amounts or made important purchases for themselves. 

At the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College at Stillwater, 
on February 1, 2 and 3, Extension workers and various Washington Office per- 
sonnel met with members of the college faculty and with Oklahoma, and Kansas 
State Extension workers. Common problems were discussed, both in general 
and in detail; discussions ranged from office practices, to farm crops and 
gardens, farm and live stock organization and to program planning. Exten- 
sion workers exchanged thought on methods and saw at first hand new techniques 
as developed at the college. The human side of extension work was stressed 
and the relation of other divisions of the Service to Extension. Mr. Monahan 
talked on the correlation of all Oklahoma activities. 

At the Tulsa meetings on February 4 and 5, Washington Office repre- 
sentatives and the Oklahoma and Kansas personnel met for joint discussions. 
Mr. A. C. Monahan, coordinator for Oklahoma, presided at a general session on 
the morning of February 4, at which Commissioner Collier, Dr. H. S. Mekeel 
and Mr. A. M. Landman sooke. The afternoon and evening were devoted to meet- 
ings of Education, Health, Indian Reorganization and Credit employees. 

Miss Minta R. Foreman, Principal of the Wheelock Academy, presided 
over the Education session at which Mr. Bea.tty led a forum discussion of 
school participation in community life. 

Indian Service health employees held a joint conference with state 
health officers, the state sanitary engineer and state nurses, at which was 
discussed the Oklahoma, health program as related to Indian Service problems. 
Various individuals gave talks, among them being Dr. W. S. Stevens, Medical 
Director for the area which includes Oklahoma, Kansas, Mississippi, Florida 
and North Carolina; Dr. Townsend, Miss Gregg, Miss Bonnie Brown, Dr. Weirich, 
Miss Hosmer and Miss Martha Keaton. 

11 



"NAVAJO ROVING BATHTUB " EXPLAINED 

By Gurdon Straus, 
Editor, Navajo Service News - Window Rock, Arizona 




Mr. Grover King, The Inventor Of This Snowsled (Snow Melter) 

For some months a strange craft has been seen in the Soil Conserva- 
tion Service controlled grazing area near G-anado. It has corrugations like a 
mammoth caterpillar, legs like a still more mammoth mosquito and sled runners 
as were used to skid the "one-horse open shay." 

On one end, probably the rear., an iron proboscis extends perpendic- 
ularly, and if one is curious enough to investigate further a delighted Navajo 
will grasp the proboscis, twist it clockwise and ask "Want a bath, Hosteen?" 

Then it will dawn on the observer that he is screwing in a stopper 
and the whole affair is made to hold water; that by cutting the four-foot 
cylinder of a road culvert in two and welding angle iron legs and runners to 
half the culvert an inventor of the Navajo Service has constructed a job that 
costs little and which can be put to many reservation uses. 



12 



THE GANADO DEMONSTRATION HERD 




Sheep Drinking Water Which Haa Been Melt-ea from Snow via "The Roving Bathtub" 




These Sheep Would ProhaDly Look Poor Had They Not Had The Much Needed Drink 



13 



It is the brainchild of veteran sheepherder Grover King, who speaks 
of his 8 1 x 4' combination as follows: 

First, I would like to change the name to "snow melter" or "Water 
sled." 

While I feel that it is worth its cost for melting snow during a 
bad winter it will also be used to move camp, haul feed, wood or any- 
thing that you might use a sled for. 

During the summer months it will be used for water storage and 
for watering ewes and lambs. A truck or wagon will haul water to the 
sled, empty it into its container and from there the water will be 
let out into troughs. 

When empty it can easily be moved to another flock of sheep. 

I am not sure about the dimensions at present but I think it 
will hold about three hundred gallons of water. Unpacked snow, I 
believe, runs about one inch of water to about twelve inches of snow. 

I feel that a good many people have failed to appreciate the 
value of this apparatus and for that reason I am glad to have the 
opportunity to explain its purpose. 

Most sheep men make the mistake of trying to depend entirely 
upon snow for water and most of us call on the Lord after the devil 
has us. These same sheep men will not hesitate to melt snow for 
their saddle horses or their milk cows, but they try to make them- 
selves believe that the sheep can get along on snow regardless of how 
low the temperature or how bad the snow is crusted. 

After a few days of this kind of weather he goes out to see a 
band of, we will say, 1,500 head and finds that it has a tail end 
of about 100 head that are going to die if something isn't done. So 
the herder cuts the sick sheep out to themselves, grabs old cans, 
tubsj wagon tanks or anything else that will hold water, melts snow, 
tries to water them, buys feed, tries to feed them and five per cent 
of them the devil gets anyway. The balance he saves, but they cost 
him more than he can sell them for. The stitch in time would have 
saved nine out of ten. 

I don't mean to say that you can melt snow for 1,500 sheep every 
day, but it is that small percentage that needs that drink of 'water. 
Twenty-five may drink today, another twenty-five tomorrow, and one 
good drink of water will carry them over several days before they 
need another. In the winter time if sheep fail to get water when they 
need it, they get what we call the dry mouth and are unable to drink 
when they do have a chance. I would rather have plenty of water and 
browse than a carload of corn in the crusted snow. Reprinted from 
Nava.jo Service News. 

14 



RED RIVER CARTS 




A Red River Cart 



The old Red River 
carts and the buffalo are 
linked in the minds of most 
of us with the romance of 
pioneer days in the Dakotas. 
Today it is impossible to 
obtain any of the carts which 
saw actual service in the old 
days, but there are several 
of the old-timers still liv- 
ing who made use of them and 
there are a few who manufac- 
tured them in the old days. 
Among these is Louis Alle-ry, 
a French- Chrooewa, born in 
1885 at White Horse Plains 
in Manitoba. 



As a boy Mr. Allery went on hunting trips with his father with the 
cart trains. They made their winter homes on the Red, Assiniboine or Pembina 
Rivers and worked at making new carts during the winter months. These they 
sold for about $20.00 each. Mr. Allery followed the trade of cart making un- 
til the introduction of wagons put the cart out of business. Albert Laviol- 
ette is also an expert cart builder. Mr. Laviolette is one of the real old- 
timers and makes his home at St. John, North Dakota. Mr. Dana Wright, an 
officer of the State Historical Society of North Dakota has been instrumental 
in having two of these carts placed where they will be preserved - one at the 
State Museum and one at the Pembina Air Port. Both were built here in the 
Turtle Mountains; the one for the Pembina Air Port by Mr. Allery;* the one 
for the museum by Mr. Laviolette. 

The original Red River carts were developed in the Pembina settle- 
ment over a hundred years ago. Previous to this the canoe and the travois 
had been the only means of transportation. The products of the buffalo hunt 
were too weighty for these limited means of transportation so necessity 
mothered the invention of the Red River cart. 

In making these carts only the simplest tools were available; an 
axe, an auger, a chisel and sometimes a home-made draw shave which was made 
of a gun barrel. Solid wheels were made by cutting off sections of logs. 
The hubs were made of elm if possible to obtain it and the wheels were of 
oak. These were fastened together with wooden pins. Sometimes the wheels 
were wrapped with tough buffalo hide called "laganap'ne" to make a sort of 
tire. The shaves and body were of light wood but the sticks on the side 
were made of oak. 



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16 



NEW INTERIOR BUILDING SOON TO BE OCCUPIED 



Within the next few weeks, approximately 300 employees of the Of- 
fice of Indian Affairs, will move into their new and permanent location in 
the newly completed Department of Interior Biiilding. This is the first major 
Federal Government structure in Washington to be begun and. completed under 
the oresent Administration and is to he officially known as the South Interior 
Department Building, while the old building, a short distance away, is to be 
known as the North Building. A 150-yard tunnel will connect the two offices. 

The new building, erected as a project of the Public Works Admin- 
istration, has a number of unusual facilities. This is the first Government 
building to date in which escalators may be found. They run from the base- 
ment to the second floor and were included to relieve congestion at the rush 
hours caused by employees going to the lunch room and garage in the basement. 
The cafeteria, one of the largest in Washington, is equipped to serve 1,200 
persons. In addition to this main dining room, there is a messenger's dining 
room, an executives' dining room and an employees' lounge in the eighth floor 
penthouse, with 132 seats for workers who wish to bring lunches from home. In 
summer the employees may go out on the roof. 

The large basement also houses a garage for executive and employees 
and an employees' activities room, which contains a large wooden court, locker 
rooms and showers. 

On the first floor is located the auditorium, library and exhibit 
gallery. The auditorium has a seating capacity of about 1,000. Here confer- 
ences and educational meetings will be held. It is equipped for the showing 
of sound films. Across the hall from the auditorium is the library, a beauti- 
fully paneled room in dark walnut, reaching two stories in height, and with 
an estimated book capacity of 400,000 volumes. 

An entire wing on the first floor will be given over to an exhibit 
gallery. Here, the many beautiful specimens of Indian arts and crafts owned 
by the Indian Office and Department of Interior, and which for lack of space 
have heretofore been stored away, will be exhibited. On the seventh floor, 
there is a fine art gallery with modern lighting to add to the value of paint- 
ings, pictures and -nhotographs which will be hung there. 

Every room in the new building is an outside room, with courts be- 
tween the wings open to the streets, to allow maximum light and air. The build- 
ing is air-conditioned throughout. 

For the first time in the construction of a Government building, 
plans call for the erection of a broadcasting studio. This will be added 

17 



later. It is to be located on the eighth floor and will be used for educa- 
tional broadcasts by bureaus of the Interior and other Government deoartments. 
A large studio for dramatizations and a small one for speeches is nlanned. 

The Office of Indian Affairs will occupy oortions of the fourth 
end fifth floors of this building. 



INDIAN DESIGNED RUBBER MATS TO APPEAR IN NEW INTERIOR BUILDING 



The gay brilliant designs on the rubber mats which greet the 
visitor on his first step inside the new Department of the Interior Build- 
ing were selected by Secretary of the Interior Ickes, from designs made by 
American Indians- All of the entrances to the building are equipped with 
large heavy-duty rubber mats, each one bearing a different typical Indian 
design executed by Indian art students. 

At the suggestion of the members of the Division of Education of 
the Indian Service, Indian designs were employed. The American Mat Corpora- 
tion of Toledo, Ohio* sponsored a contest among the students of Pine Ridge 
School in South Dakota; Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas; Flandreau 
School in Flandreau, South Dakota; Chilocco School in Chilocco, Oklahoma 
and the Indian School at Phoenix, Arizona. 

Students were furnished with the materials and charts and three 
cash prizes ^were awarded to each school by the mat company. There were a 
total of sixty-four designs submitted by the students of the five schools. 

The sixty-four designs were all sent to Secretary Ickes who made 
the final choice of the nine designs to be used on the mats at the nine 
entrances to the new building. The choice made was independent of the choice 
made by the mat corporation which resulted in three prizes being awarded 
each of the five schools. It was coincidental th«t the designs chosen by 
the Secretary were all done by Haskell Institute students. Of the nine 
Haskell students whose designs were chosen, eight tribes are represented - 
Sioux, Blackfeet, Chirioewa, Seneca, Cheyenne, Kickapoo, Cherokee, Potawatomi, 
and it can be said that the designs are typical of these various tribes. 

The American Mat Corporation has signed a contract with each of 
these nine students to the effect that in the future when any of these de- 
signs are sold, one dollar for each mat sold will be oaid to the artist. 

The photographs of the nine mats which were selected by Secretary 
Ickes appear on the opoosite page. 

18 




19 



ADDRESS BEFOR E ANNUAL MEETING OF HOME MISSIONS COUNCILS 

JANUAHT 11, 1937 , AT AS3URY PARK , N. J. 

By Willard W. Beatty, Director Of Education - U.S. Office Of Indian Affairs 



At the present moment I feel that one problem of greatest concern 
to our Indians is that we do something to create a more self-reliant, self- 
supporting, self-respecting group of people. Depression combined with a 
number of other factors has reacted very seriously in the Indian country. 
The Federal Government and church groups who have been interested in these 
people have in the past made the error of relieving the Indian of much re- 
sponsibility of self-support. We are still doing it today - both of us. In 
some areas we are trying to set him on his feet; in other areas we are fall- 
ing* over ourselves to make him dependent. If we rob him of his independence, 
it doesn't make any difference what else of good we do for him; we have per- 
manently harmed him. 

The point of view which we both share is more sentimental than 
factual. When the Indian was confined to the reservation we implanted upon 
him a stigma which we sought to relieve him of by encouraging his children 
to leave the reservation. In the meantime we have whittled away in one man- 
ner or another the lands we reserved to the Indians, so that many reserva- 
tions are now inadequate to support their Indian population. The land areas 
which they still possess, however, constitute one of the greatest assets the 
Indians have in this country. Some people have thought that the Indian 
should be educated to make his living in urban areas as does the white man. 
This is possibly the solution in some areas but far from true in all cases. 

In many states if an Indian were to apply for a position in com- 
petition with a white boy, both being equally qualif ied for the job, the 
white boy would be taken in preference almost any time. In places where 
this is true, it is pointless to urge Indians to go into urban areas in com- 
petition with white people. 

In many areas our Indians need a better education than white boys 
and girls in the same part of the country, for Indians start with handicaps 
not shared by the white boys and girls. Often they do not speak English. 
One-third of the Sioux children do" not speak English when they first come to 
school - and relatively few Navajo speak English. Few teachers in the Indian 
schools are equipped to deal with language difficulty. Last year we set up 
two summer schools to try to give teachers specific training to deal with 
this problem and I am happy to say that these, while they did not reach all 
the teachers, have resulted in a more intelligent attack on the problem. 



20 



In 1937 there will be summer schools at Pine Ridge in South Dakota, 
Wingate in New Mexico and Tahlequah in Oklahoma. Any teachers in church schools 
who would like to come are welcome. They will have to pay a part of the ex- 
penses. Eighty-five dollars will cover a six-weeks' program including tuition 
and living expenses. 

If a youngster, a six-year-old, comes to school from a family not 
sneaking English and where books are not known, he is starting with a real 
handicao. In some areas Indian children are entirely oblivious to the fact 
that there is comnuni cation by written word. Of course, in other areas, as 
in Oklahoma, the problem is not as acute. 

We must recognize that the Indian today in this country, with the 
exception of certain areas, is a rural person. He lives on land. Ke or his 
tribe owns land or has the use of land. Up to quite recently the Federal 
Government has done very little to train the Indian to use his own land 
profitably for himself. It has assisted him to get rid of it in almost every 
way, with the result that the good land is largely in the hands of white 
people today whether owned by the Indians or not. In the last few years and 
coming to a head this year, there has been a movement to train Indian boys 
and girls to utilize bhe resources which they own. We hope to train a larger 
group of Indians to do things that may contribute to their self-support than 
we have ever dene in the past. 

We have generally made the mistake of thinking that we can educate 
children of Indian parents without regard to the parents, but now we are bring- 
ing the parents into the system of education. They are as much concerned 
about their children as we are about ours. They can be ma.de conscious of 
the handicaps which they place on their children. They can be told, "You 
want your children to come to school and be educated so they can compete with 
white children." And it is effective. 

Pour Oklahoma schools within the next year will do a substantial 
job of training their students for the work they will do after they are through 
school. The Chilocco project is a superior bit of educational work which has 
never beaidone in a white school. If a student is interested in stock graz- 
ing, he is given practical training in that work, with a herd to care for, 
and he may graduate as the owner of six heifers which he has earned by caring 
for his herd. He may have some money which he earned in summer months at the 
farm at Chilocco while school was not in session. Henceforth there may not 
be such a thing as a summer when school is not in session, for farming of any 
kind is a spring and summer occupation and if the students are to get first- 
hand training, they must be on hand at those seasons. If a girl wants to 
raise poultry, she may come out of school with seventy to one hundred chick- 
ens of her own. The students can leave school possessors of material substance. 



El 



A boy set up a shoemaking shop on the school grounds and by working 
for fellow-students earned enough money for his own shoemaking shop. He goes 
out as a full-fledged shoemaker and will receive his diploma on the basis of 
what he has earned the first two or three months he has "been in business, rath- 
er than what he has gotten in examinations. 

This experiment has been carried out in other schools. We are dis- 
cussing having one for Sequoyah School but so far it is only discussion. A 
program that is good at one school may not be good at all at another. We are 
going around visiting schools, studying existing situations in the areas and 
then determining what program would be valuable for that school. 

There are one or two other places where we know we are making prog- 
ress. At Pine Ridge, South Dakota, we are operating a herd of 600 beef cattle 
and a herd of cows for the production of purebred sires. We leased 34,000 acres 
of grazing land which used to be exploited by white men and the boys- are learning 
to become cattle men. They even leave school for two weeks on horseback to 
learn to ride herd on these cattle. They are being taught other things too, 
but in that particular school, they are learning the thing they need to learn 
at the time they need to learn it. Some of their academic training takes in 
research and study of grazing problems. We are trying to teach the youngsters 
practical things out of which they can make a living and when they graduate 
from Pine Ridge they will graduate actually owning the proceeds of the herd 
they cared for. And through the Extension Service of the Bureau they will go 
into cattle cooperatives. Due to the complexity of the allotment system, they 
may have to lease their own land to others and lease other land for themselves. 

At- .Pima, the students graduating from high school will be going out 
in the winter of their senior year to their own land and will have the coopera- 
tion of their own classmates in building a home and getting their land ready. 

During the high school course if boys and girls wish to get married 
they may do so and continue their education. If they can have practical ex- 
perience in living together and working together they will be much better off 
after they are through school. In many schools where there are many, many 
thousands of acres of land, cottages will be built on plots of one hundred 
acres each for these young couples and they will be trained among other 
things in child care and guidance. 

If things work out the way we hope they will, the Indian Service 
in the next five years will be able to show American education in general a 
few .things about educating young people in life success. One thing we are 
not doing is training Indian boys and girls to get jobs in large cities. We 
are definitely discouraging outing expeditions. There has been entirely too 
much tendency for girls going out in that way to get into immoral situations. 

One of the reasons why I like to see marriage in high schools is 
because I like to see those young people looking forward to a home and not to 



22 



earning money so they can be married. Another thing which we are doing is 
pulling out electric and gas stoves in the home economics department at the 
schools because at home on the reservations, they probably do not have such 
things. A questionnaire went out to home economics teachers asking what kind 
of fuel their children would use when they left school and what kind of stove. 
Fare they educating them to meet conditions as they would find them? 

With regard to living accommodations at schools, I am doing every- 
thing I can to get rid of the old barrack type of living accommodation with 
the toilet half a mile away and showers under the stars. In some dormitories, 
sixty to one hundred children sleep in one big room. At Cheyenne we are 
building a dormitory in which there will be only four in a room and each room 
will have an adjoining toilet, bath and shower. This may seem opposed to the 
policy with regard to electric and gas stoves but the only way we can make 
Indians want to live like us is by making them live like us. We have not 
been offering them any aspects of civilized or white life which we should 
care to perpetrate ourselves. We have not yet created for a large number of 
Indians any personal experience of personal comfort which would make them un- 
comfortable when they returned to the inconvenience of their Indian tribes. 
We need to give them comfort for a long enough time to make them want it in 
the future. 

On the reservation we are also attempting something of this sort by 
having a continuing series of experiences in building homes out of materials 
available, mostly earth: how you can make the kind of house you are living 
in now better in this way; how with limited assets you now have you can make 
a one or two or three-room house better. All you have to pay for in cash is 
a wooden floor, roof, windows and door, costing about $175. Many students 
will find it possible to earn that much money or its equivalent during the 
three years in high school so it is feasible for them to do it and with the 
desire for a better standard of living they can go out and build themselves 
better places to live in - not like the new type of dormitory we are build- 
ing at Cheyenne but which will approximate it. 

If they have the desire to pull themselves up to a different level 
of life, they can do so. Civilization is built up by people being consistent- 
ly dissatisfied with the way in which they are living and with the strength 
of their own wills and their hands bettering their standard of living. 

So we are doing what we can to teach the children to desire better 
standards of living and to teach them to start with zero and make something 
out of zero. 



****** ** 



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24 



SECOND GEO UP OF CHIEF CLERKS MEETS IN WASHINGTON 

The second conference of chief clerks attended by representatives 
from Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota, was held in Washington from 
February 8 to 15. The program followed was substantially the same as that 
adopted for the first conference except that it was eroanded to include dis- 
cussions of the operation of the Indian Reorganization Act and also discus- 
sions on probate procedure. 

With one or two exceptions, none of the chief clerks had ever had 
an opportunity to visit the Washington Office officially before and each one 
expressed a high degree of satisfaction in the results obtained. 

The following chief clerks attended this conference: 

John D. Keeley Cheyenne River Agency, S. D. 

Martin Van Winkle Crow Creek Agency, S. D. 

Matt William Mattson Flandreau School, S. D. 

Henry D. Decker Flathead Agency, Montana 

S. W. Trethewey Fort Belknap Agency, Montana 

Earl R. Hall Fort Peck Agency, Montana 

William Nail Fort Totten Agency, N. D. 

Ray J. Davis-. •• Pierre School, S. D. 

Marvin G. Ripke Pine Ridge Agency, S. D. 

Reinholt Brust Rocky Boy's Agency, Montana 

John A. Barkley Rosebud Agency, S. D. 

W. Arthur Spencer Shoshone Agency, Wyoming. 

P. A. Nicodemus Si sse ton Agency, S. D. 

Everett Euneau Standing Rock Agency, N. D. 

George R. Smith Tongue River Agency, Montana 

Ralph F. Grinnell Turtle Mountain Agency, N. D. 

Fritz W. Scholder Wahpeton School, N. D. 

James A. Medaris Irrigation Service, Montana 

Harry J. Corry Irrigation Service, Montana 

It is planned to hold the next conference of chief clerks during 
the latter part of March or the first part of April and at that time there 
will probably be called in the chief clerks from the Lake States area and 
Oklahoma. 



25 



A MONUMENT TO COOPERATION 

By E..L. Berry - Assistant - Road Construction 
Standing Rock Agency, North Dakota 




Old Bridge Structure Before Replacement 



The Road Department 
of the Standing Rock Reserva- 
tion has completed a two-span 
nibble masonry "bridge across 
Oak Creek near the Wakpala 
School. This "bridge serves 
as the "bus route connection 
from the Wakpala School to 
the St. Elizabeth Mission. It 
was built to replace an old 
steel frame and piling bridge 
which was badly in need of 
expensive repairs. A school 
bus travels over this bridge 
six times a day transporting 
children over a three-mile 
completed road project from 
the St. Elizabeth Mission. 



The bridge was designed by the Road Department and built under its 
supervision with 70 per cent WPA labor. Homer C. Cornell, Road Engineer and 
Ray Kittilstved, Bridge Foreman, deserve the credit for this structure as 
they personally supervised the work. This type of bridge work was possible 
through cooperation with the WPA organization in South Dakota. The WPA 
furnished all common labor, which was the most important item of the work; 
Corson County as sponsor furnished one-half of the r>t*mf>nf. necessary in con- 
struction and most of the 
stringers. 

The bridge con- 
tains 539 cubic yards of 
rubble masonry. Each rock 
was individually placed 
by workmen to form the two 
abutments and the center 
pier. The abutments are 
5' wide at the base, 1^' 
wide at the top and 26' 
high. Built-up sections 
from an old water tower 
were salvaged and used as 
piling in this structure 
to give the finished 
bridge a factor of safety. 




Completed Structure Of Wakpala 
Rubble Masonry Bridge 



The bridge is testimonial of the cooperative efforts of the State 
WPA, the Corson County officials and the Indian Service to correct a bad 
road situation for the benefit of a school and community whose population 
is about equally divided between white and Indian folks. 



26 



BRAZILIAN PROTECTION FOR THE INDIANS 



By Vincenzo Petrullo 




Weaving On A Primitive Loom - Matto Grosso, Brazil 

Note : The first half of this article appeared in the February 15 
issue of "Indians At Work." 

The Indian problem in Brazil is a complex one that can be solved 
only through rational means. It is the chief asset of the Indian Service that 
neither racial, religious, nor social prejudice has any place in the nhiloso- 
ohy that it embraces. True, its attempt is to civilize, by which is meant 
increasing the means at the disposal of the Indians to gain a livelihood and 
if possible to enable them to take their places as integral citizens of Brazil, 
but the methods employed to bring this about seek to conserve all that the In- 
dians themselves wish to keep. Its aim is to pacify and train the aborigines 
to live in communities of their own but on a level with the rest of the Bra- 
zilian citizenry. It is to bring them in touch gradually with opportunity in 
the sections where they live. 



27 




Government Indian Post At 
Corrego Grande - Matto Grosso 



This policy involves 
a complete reversal of thought 
on the part of the Brazilians. 
The new philosophy embodies 
Christian principles and. atti- 
tudes; and nuts the burden of 
the problem not on the peoples 
who have through circumstances 
lagged behind culturally, but 
on the civilized to lead the un- 
civilized in human progress. It 
claims that it is the duty of 
the civilized to serve the un- 
civilized rather than destroy 
them. It means that civiliza- 
tion must forego the tendency to 
unthinkingly make Christians of 
the Indians, but must learn from 
its Christian doctrines how to 
serve them. Instead of the nhi- 
losophy of cupidity, of enriching the country and its citizens through the 
forced labor of the primitives, one has arisen that seeks to contribute to 
their general welfare and wipe out th<= inequities of the past. The Brazilians 
consider themselves as the children of usumers whose duty it is to launch a 
work of reparation and restoration. 

In launching this program the Service recognized that first of all 
it had to make guarantees to the aborigines; to convince them that the old 
policy of extermination was discarded. In order to do this it was necessary 
and is necessary to put pressure on the civilized groups of European origins 
to prevent any wanton invasion of the regions occuoied by the Indians. The 
Indian Service has been rigid in this policy. No one is allowed to penetrate 
Indian territory or to visit Indian posts without due permission. This has 
been made to auoly even to scientific expeditions, since in recent years many 
of them purporting to be scientific were of a quite different nature. Natural- 
ly this policy does not fit in with the ideas of ranchers, diamond miners, 
rubber barons and others who would find wealth in the hinterland. The wild- 
erness is the land of the Indians and it must remain so. The Service believes 
that. Later we will see what use is intended for this land. 

The next point is to distribute among them means of bettering their 
life and work. This involves, for instance, teaching them to construct houses, 
or where they already have houses, in teaching them better methods of building 
them; the use of domestic tools; the substitution of iron implements for those 
of wood and bone or stone; the keeping and breeding of domestic animals; bet- 
ter agricultural methods; and not the least important, to teach them to speak, 
read and write Portuguese, and what arts and crafts they want to assimilate. 
Hygiene and other health measures calculated to be of moral and physical benefit 
to them are being introduced. 



28 



It is important and significant that there is neither a policy of 
oppression or suppression. There is no attemot to force religion upon them 
nor to urge them to abandon their own religious ceremonies and ideas. In their 
economic life, essentially communal and cooperative, there is no attempt to 
force the individualistic system of the Europeans. Tribes that are noraa-dic 
are directed toward a pastoral life; those that are sedentary to an agricul- 
tural life. In other words, the purpose is to develop them along the lines of 
least resistance and lines most compatible to their former existence. Mission- 
ary work is permitted under government supervision, but it must be not only 
religious in nature, but medical, agricultural, pastoral and of a general social 
service type. No Indian is forced to embrace Christianity, to forego the cus- 
toms and language of his ancestors. If he chuoses the path towards civiliza- 
tion it must be through his own volition and he can keep as much as he wants 
of his ancestral culture. 

The above program sounds idealistic and is subject, because of that, 
to criticism: yes, it is typically Latin-American, very idealistic on paper 
but quite different in execution. Such critics are wrong. In actual practice 
the program is even more idealistic than it sounds. I have not exaggerated 
in making the statement that to the personnel of the Service this program is 
the catechism of a religion in which they believe and that General Hondon is 
its inspiring hero. One has only to meet and converse with such men as Major 
Eamiro Noronha, Dr. Benedito Duarte, Monteira, Dr. C. Candeira, or any one of 
the lesser employees at Cuyaba to become quickly convinced of this. If one 
takes the trouble to examine the records of the Service and to visit the field 
Stations, or if one goes among primitive groups who still keep aloof, he will 
come away a convert. 

The Bororo, the Bakairi , the Barbados, the Paracis, some of the 
Nhambikuara; all of them formerly in a state of perpetual war with the "civilized 
settlers are now living in 
peace and progressing stead- 
ily toward a better future. 
To all of them, as to the 
personnel of the Service, 
the "Generale" is a symbol 
of the justice and frater- 
nity among mankind. 

For purposes of 
administration the country 
is divided in ten districts 
of which Matto Grosso is one 
Headquarters for the Serv- 
ice, the "Inspectorial are 
located in Cuyaba, the cap- 
ital of the state. Being 
the central office, all work 
within the state is cooodi- 

S toning Flour 




29 



nated there, but it also serves as a center for Indians who come on visits to 
the city. Formerly Indians that came to Cuyaba with perhaos small sums of 
earned money would "be quickly swindled of everything. If they attempted to 
purchase anything they were charged preposterous prices. The men would fall 
in the clutches of prostitutes and the women were considered an easy prey for 
anyone. Occasionally even naked Indians would come into the city to become the 
sport of its citizens. They would finally leave the city poor and often 
diseased. But now that is all over. First of all, Indians must receive the 
permission of the superintendent of the post to visit the city, and when they 
arrive there, they are cared for by the Inspectoria. Their purchases are made 
for them by its personnel; they are taken to the cinema and other places of 
interest; and they are kept away from casual and organized vices. Here too 
reside boys who attend advanced schools under the guardianship of the Service. 
Only the boys who show an aptitude for book learning or for a particular trade 
are given the opportunity of living in the city. Others stay in their own 
villages. In this way is avoided teaching trades and occupations to more boys 
than can be possibly absorbed into the commercial world, or can be of service 
to their own people. The great majority are trained to live in their own com- 
munities. 

The field stations, are, of course, the most important feature of the 
Service. There are a number of them throughout the state. Some are permanent 
posts, located among friendly Indians already somewhat versed in white ways. 
In regions where the Indians are still hostile and suspicious there are tempo- 
rary stations. 

In addition there are the missionary centers, not under the direct 
control of the government. There is a Catholic mission at Christina Teresa 
under the Salesians. As is well known, the Salesian Order came into existence 
as a religious social service body in Italy at a time when social conditions 
there were appalling; that is, before its unification. At that time thousands 
of homeless children were roaming the streets of the cities and the country- 
side living as best they could. By fraternizing with them, Don Bosco, a friar, 
was able to establish social service centers where these homeless waifs received 
help and some instruction. From such beginnings, the order that he founded 
has spread to all the world and since the Salesians are not interested in 
theology as much as in being of service to mankind, especially among young 
people, it represents a modern movement at its best. 

The order seems well fit to work among primitives and the colony at 
Cristina Teresa is a model of human kindness and understanding The Bororo 
who live there are being taught to cultivate the soil, to raise domestic 
animals and to master various other vocations. Similarly, the more recently 
established Protestant mission at Burity on the plateau of Matto Grosso is a 
model of modern social service work. Both are so different from the old type 
of religious missions and the Indians under them thrive so well that there is 
no complaint on the part of the authorities. 



30 






Where there are no missions 
there are government stations . Let lis 
consider the permanent stations first. 
The first one I saw is located on the 
Sao Lorenjo River near one of the vil- 
lages of the Bororo. As we flew over 
it we saw the government "buildings on 
the river bank and the Bororo village 
some distance away in the middle of the 
jungle, removed from the river in ac- 
cordance with custom. A clean path cuts 
through the jungle, connecting the two 
establishments. The Indian villages 
were built according to ancient plan: 
in the center of the clear was located 
the men's house; around it arranged in 
a circle were smaller houses where the 
women and children live and where they 
receive the visits of the husbands; 
each of the women's houses occupies its 
proper position in accordance with the 
clan position in the village organiza- 
tion. In the government buildings 
reside the superintendent and his as- 
sistants. One of the rooms in one of 
the buildings serves as a schoolroom; 
another as a workshop. 

Whatever the Bororo raise in 
the way of food and cattle in excess of 
their needs is sold for their benefit. 
In the workshops some of the boys are 
being taught trades. Hygienic measures 
are being applied. Every morning each 
boy and girl attends school for a few 
hours. Outside of these influences, 
the Bororo live their own lives. 




A Native Of Matto Grosso 
In His Dancing Costume 



Family and village organization have been left intact. Marriage 
is strictly regulated in accordance with the ahruent customs which urohibit 
marriage within the same social half of the tribe and permit it only with 
members of a specified clan. The men make their bows and arrows as of old 
except that now they have knives, instead of shell to work with. They hunt 
and fish and occasionally work for a rancher or for the Inspectoria for 
which work they receive just payment. The women do the gardening. A young man 
wishing to marry still has to prove his manhood by trailing and killing a 
large jaguar single-handed. In short, nothing in their social culture has 
been disturbed and if they have given anything up, or if some of them prefer 
wearing clothes instead of going naked it is of their own free will that 
they do so. 



31 



The Bororo who for four hundred years have teen implacahle enemies 
of the newcomers, now are peaceful and thriving. Some of them have even he- 
come telegraph operators. The remarkable thing is that all of this progress 
has taken place in one generation. 

Let us take the post at Simoe Lopes on the Paranatinga River. Here 
are collected the remnants of the Bakairi, who formerly lived in a number of 
villages along the hanks of the headwaters of the Xingu River. When Von den 
Steinen discovered them half a century ago they had never seen white men. 
They were very primitive, using only wood, hone, shell and some stone tools. 
They lived mostly hy fishing and on wild roots and seeds. They are Caribs 
and lived constantly at war with neighboring tribes. I know them well, for 
twelve of them served as my canoe men in my expedition to the Kuluseu and 
the Kuluene Rivers. At the time some of them had been at the station only 
a few years. 

The station is situated on high land. It consists of a well-built 
large building serving as storehouse, guest house, school and work shop. 
About five hundred yards away is the Bakairi village. Close to the river is 
a small house where reside the superintendent and his wife. The Indian vil- 
lage consiste of thatched houses - not built in the old-fashioned Bakairi 
style; that is, four or five large communal houses each of which housed a 
number of interrelated families - but smaller houses, each occupied by one 
family after the style of civilized people, or for that matter, the Bororo. 

Clearly there is an imitation of civilized ways, but it is voluntary 
on their part. The men hunt, fish and take care of the cattle. Never hav- 
ing had domestic animals before, they do not quite understand the value of 
breeding cattle rather than eating them. The women raise gardens and recently 
have been encouraged to raise cotton. The Inspectoria has tried to develop 
their native crafts, although these people were so primitive that they did 
not have much on which to build. They did make hammocks out of palm leaf 
fiber and now they are being encouraged to make fine hammocks out of cotton. 

The Inspectoria hopes to build up a trade for them so that they 
can increase their earnings. All the children go to school where they learn 
Portuguese. The most promising ones receive further education at Cuyaba and 
also learn trades. One or two have been sent even to Rio de Janeiro for 
higher education. Yet they are left alone to live their own lives and to as- 
similate as much as they want of civilization. They are making rapid progress. 

There are other posts of this nature and many of the other groups 
have made equally good progress. The Parecis, who twenty years ago attacked 
General Rondon when he was building the telegraph line throughout their 
country, are now its guardians and several of them are operators in complete 
charge of their stations. At Barra dos Bruges the Barbados are going through 
similar progressive development. 



32 






While this work is going on among Indians that have come under the 
influence of the Inspectoria voluntarily, other posts are located further in 
the wilderness in regions where the Indians are still "belligerent. While I 
was there a number of settlers and a missionary family were killed "by the 
Nhambikuaras . Yet at Juruena and Utiarity are such posts in charge of men 
striving to make peaceful contact with primitives still in the Stone-Age 
state. Recently a post was established among the Cajabis whom a few years 
ago no one could approach. The technique in making friends with such wild 
tribes is first to let them strictly alone, never to retaliate for attacks 
and to leave presents for them at places where they have camped. Eventually 
such methods bring results. 

The personnel of the Service is no less interesting than their 
work. I have commented on their enthusiasm for this work of humanity and 
civilization. Many of the field workers have Indian blood in their veins 
and now some of the Indians who have been trained by the Inspectoria are 
stationed in its posts. They understand Indian psychology and the history 
of Indian exploitation. For the most part, they are natives of the region 
where they work. Since in the lower classes there always has existed a deep 
sympathy for the Indians, they find excellent support among most of the Bra- 
zilians. Nevertheless, their work is dangerous and not a few of them ha,ve 
been killed in service by the very people they are trying to help. With 
their lives they have paid for the sins of their less scrupulous compatriots, 
but they have set a standard of fair dealing and devotion to a cause that 
will never be forgotten in Brazil. 

The work goes on still, under the inspiration of General Rondon, 
who at an advanced age is still as active as the youngest member of the or- 
ganization that he founded. When he flew with us six years ago, the. first 
time that he had ever seen Matto Grosso from the air, although there is no 
man living that knows the interior of Brazil as well as he does, he was as 
enthusiastic as when he was a young lieutenant. His whole personality and 
the service he founded were described to me by one of his disciples, Major 
Ramiro Noronha, in the words, "Humanity has done much for the individual; 
it is time that the individual do something for humanity." 

************ 



COVER DESIGN 

The cover design which appears on this issue of "Indians At Work" 

was reproduced from a cover page design which appeared oh a recent issue of 

"Teguayo." "Teguayo" is published by the students of the Santa Fe Indian 
School in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 



33 



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34 



CANNING PROJECTS WITHIN INDIAN SCHOOL PROG-RAMS 
By Cleora C. Helping, Associate Supervisor of Home Economics 




Salmon Caught In The Trinity River In Hoopa, California, 
To Be Canned In The Community Cannery 

Every person who has to do with the working out of a school nrogram 
in the Indian Service has asked himself many times, "How and what can we do in 
the community to conserve food which might otherwise "be wasted and at the same 
time teach hoys and girls," men and women the value of work, conservation and 
a balanced diet as a result of having fresh fruit, vegetables, fish and meat 
saved to he used throughout the year." 

I can rememher in 1935 when the superintendent, school people and 
Indians at Hoopa, California, were quite concerned "because the Indians were 
allowing much of their "bountiful fruit, garden and especially fish supplies 
to be wasted because of lack of equipment and personnel to take care of it. 
A Home Economics teacher was put in charge, canning equipment was purchased, 
community groups were brought together and trained. Today the picture has 
changed. The boarding school which later became an Indian day school is now 
a public school under the California contract, where Indians and whites at- 
tend. When the contract went into effect, the Home Economics teachers, a 
Government employee, was transferred to another jurisdiction but before leav- 
ing, she trained Mrs. Jerry Horn, a local Indian woman, to take charge of the 
canning program for the school and community. 



35 



Recently when I visited Hoopa, an Indian man and his wife had that 
day canned a quarter of beef. The same day salmon was brought in to be canned 
so that no waste might be possible and at the same time there would be ample 
food throughout the winter. Is it to be wondered that the Indians in this 
beautiful Trinity Valley are enthusiasts for good schools for themselves and 
their children? To quote Mr. Beatty, "It is this type of self-cuff iciency up- 
on the part of the Indians which must be sought if the work of the Indian 
Service is to be justified in its outcome." 



In some day schools there is only one person to carry the entire 
load both in school and community. I wish I might give the same inspiration 
to those of you who read this article that I received the day I visited the 
Kaibab Day School in Kaibab, Utah, taught by Mrs. Jennie B. Goss. She is 
not only the teacher, but she is the housekeeper and the community worker. I 
was pleased with the classroom procedure and the lunch which the children 
prepared and served under her direction, but I was inspired when I saw the 
canned goods she had, with the help of the mothers and pupils, put up for 
school use. Imagine a list such as this mit up from the local school garden, 
miles from a raarke-t in the wide open spaces: 



Tomatoes 220 quarts 

Tomato Juice i 50 quarts 

Grape Juice 25 quarts 

Grape Jam 12 quarts 

Plum Jam 32 quarts 

String Beans 24 quarts 

Pickles - 10 quarts 

Beets °5 quarts 

Pears (canned) 56 quarts 

Chilli Sauce 20 quarts 

Pears (preserved) 20 quarts 

Meat Relish 6 quarts 

Tomato Relish 13 quarts 



Pumpkin 20 quarts 

Carrots 200 pounds 

Turnips , 100 pounds 

Cabbage (Sauerkraut) 2 gallons 

Peaches (canned) 16 quarts 

Peaches (preserved) 14 quarts 

Apples ( canned) 20 quarts 

Apples ( dried) 12 quarts 

Chilli 5 pounds 

Pear Relish 6 qunrts 

Tomato Preserve 6 quarts 

Jelly (Assorted Flavors) ... 25 glasses 

Apple Butter 8 quarts 



After school we visited the homes and the Indian women graciously 
showed the. canned goods which they had put up at the same time the school gar- 
den was being cared for. In other words this teacher had the vision of carry- 
ing the community program jointly with that of the school program. This alone 
shows what one person with vision, enthusiasm and hard work can do to build 
up good habits of conservation, health and nutrition. Here again we see self- 
sufficiency developed in the Indian men and women. 

Prom the small one-room day school we can go to a large non-reserva- 
tion boarding school. At Salem Indian School in Chemawa, Oregon, there has 
always been an abundance of fruit and vegetables raised but much went to waste 
because it was not canned. At Celilo on the Columbia River there was a ter- 
rific waste of the very finest salmon. This past summer a cannery was installed 
at Chemawa and a competent instructor put in charge. Student labor was used 



36 






entirely. The amazing re- 
sults were that the total 
output of the cannery in- 
cluded 4,551 number 10 cans 
of fruit, 7,000 number 10 
cans of vegetables and 8,080 
number 1 flat cans of fish; 
a grand total of 19,631 cans. 

The work as stated 
above was all done by Indian 
boys and girls in their 
teens, who knew nothing 
about it the day they began. 
Certainly the results are a 
remarkable tribute to the fu- 




Cannery At Salem School, Oregon 



ture citizenship, ability and adaptability of the Indian. Credit is not only 
due the superintendent, the instructor and the Indian boys and girls, but al- 
so to Mr. Shawver the dairyman and farmer who worked untiringly to provide 
not only the crops but energy which it takes to put over such a tremendous 
project. 

These are only three cases where we have found people who can "Carry 
a Message to Garcia." There are some who have not caught the vision of a com- 
munity program, but there are many others who are doing a magnificent piece of 
work. 



WHY I SAT "YES" TO TEE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS" OF THE UTE 

INDIAN TRIBE OF THE UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION IN UTAH 

By Lydia Oarum, Fourth Grade Pupil 



We still keep our reservation. Our children will be members of 
the Ute Tribe just like our mothers and fathers. The Indians can talk about 
their needs and what might be good for them. They can speak for themselves. 

We can elect our own business committee to help us carry on our 
business. They will help keep peace among our Indians and health -too-* If 
we have no money and want to go to school, we can borrow money but we will 
have to pay it back when we get a job. 

We can worship God like we think God wants ufc to. The Indian 
women can majke their beadwork and baskets. We can have the Bear Dance and 
the Sun Lfanee. We can lease our coal lands, grazing lands, forests and 
asphalt lands. 



37 



BETWEEN ME AND STARVATION 
By A Fort Peck, Montana, Indian 

When I received ray allotment in 1910, the only thing to do was to 
try and make my living some way on my 320 acres. It was just like the Govern- 
ment said, "Now, here's your 320 acres of land; work it, or starve to death, 
but don't sell it and hang around the office and ask for your children's money 
every day." 

Years went "by; I tried to get started. Soon came our farmer to Box 
Elder. Mr. Burton Roth came to where I live and saw what I was trying to do. 
He got interested in me and wanted me to try dry farming. He said this was 
the best thing for me to do because he believed in that. At the same time 
our Superintendent bought an engine with which they broke 20 to 40 acres for 
the Indians through the reservation. When the Fourth of July came, most In- 
dians didn't want to use the engine so I asked our Superintendent if I could 
use it. He said it was all right so I helped to haul it out to my nlace 16 
miles north of Brockton. They broke SO acres for me. From that on, I started 
breaking land every year until I broke 400 acres. Of course, we hit some good 
years and some bad years until we built a good home for ourselves, a stable, 
a well and a. granary; also our section of land was fenced and our field was 
fenced. I bought all kinds of machinery during that time. Of course, I 
bought all my own work horses; I never bought any reimbursable horses. I 
raised all my own horses. We had a few hepd of milk cows when we started in 
farming. In ten years we had a big bunch of range cattle. I found out that 
I made more money in cattle than I did in dry farming. I can sell them and 
eat them too. 

When a big outside company came to this reservation, they leased all 
the land around us. My cattle and I were on starvation, so I had to sell them. 

There's an old saying, "Weak mind and strong back makes a goou farm- 
er", but I found out today that my mind was strong and my back was weak. 

The next thing I wanted to know was how to make some gold so I made 
a trip to the Bear Paw Mountains four times to find the gold. Also I made a 
trip through Yellowstone Valley three times, on through Billings to the Crow 
Agency. Also the Milk River Valley. As I went through there the Yellowstone 
Valley was very beautiful; it was very green; but the hills were bare. Now, 
I thought to myself, that there's the gold that I've been looking for. All 
kinds of vegetables and feed were raised by irrigation, so since that time I 
have been realizing how we can make our living. I talked to our farmer, Mr. 
Maurice Bighorn, to ask our Extension Agent, Mr. McKinsey, if he can help us 
to start a little irrigation plant here near Brockton like»Mr. McKinsey started 
on Poplar Creek. 



38 



Soon we were notified through Superintendent John ft. Hunter and Mr. 
McKinsey that we can have a four-acre garden. So the I.E.C.W. boss put his 
boys out to clear the bushes on four acres and plowed for us. When it was 
ready we all got busy and planted our garden seeds. Of course the ground 
wasn't good yet but we all got enough potatoes out of there to get along with 
for the winter. 

Now I know how we Indians can make better living: That is to raise 
our vegetables and our feed by irrigation and also have a few head of cattle; 
also a good big pasture. Then all of us Indians will be sitting on top of 
the Bear Paw Mountains. 



PREHISTORIC MOUNDS NEAR MACON . GEORGIA . BECOMES NATIONAL MONUMENT 



A prehistoric cornfield a thousand years old and a domed earthen 
ceremonial chamber or council house reminiscent of the kivas of the South- 
west are among the reminders of long-vanished and little known peoples who 
once occupied the vicinity of what is now Macon, Georgia. 

Their surviving works, Indian mounds extending for some fifteen 
miles along the Ocmulgee River in an area commonly known as Ocmulgee Old 
Fields, a part of which became on December 23, 1936, a National Monument to 
be administered by the National Park Service constitutes the first Federal 
anthropological monument in the East. It is known as Ocmulgee National 
kcnument. Already excavations have brought to light the above relics. 

Discovery of the council chamber is of importance to ethnologists, 
providing the first authentic evidence that the traditions extant among the 
Creek Indians may be substantiated. According to these legends, the ances- 
tors of the Creeks came from far west of the Mississippi, making a stand 
against their enemies on the banks of the Ocmulgee. Here they fought a 
decisive battle in which they were victorious. Later they brought into their 
confederacy the vanquished tribes. 

Long before this date the land was occupied by a hunting people. 
Projectiles of flint of a type similar to the famous Folsom points, estimated 
to be more than 10,000 years old, unearthed at Ocmulgee, bear witness to 
their presence. 

Veneration for the past is an Indian characteristic. With such 
reverence did the Creeks regard the ancient mounds in Ocmulgee Old Fields 
that in all their treaties with other nations they reserved specified lands 
in order to insure preservation of the primitive structures. Today the 
National Park Service is emulating their civic spirit by the care exercised 
to protect Ocmulgee National Monument. Reprinted from " FACTS AND ARTIFACTS . " 

39 



A 3023 -MILS BASKET BALL TRIP INTO TEXAS FROM ARIZONA 
By Wayne T. Pratt, Boys' Adviser - Fort Apache Agency, Arizona 




First Stop - Coolidge Dam, Arizona 



Why The Trip : The 
boys needed it. This group 
of Indian people (White Moun- 
tain Apaches) live in both 
physical and psychological 
isolation. These boys are 
at the turning noint of de- 
ciding whether they will ac- 
cept further scholastic train- 
ing which may mean a higher 
standard of living. 

When Was The Tri p : 
We left Fort Aoache, Arizona, 
during Christmas vacation, 

December 18, 1936 and returned Sunday night January 3, 193?, missing only 

three days of school. 

Who Made The Trip : Ten basket ball players and one Indian dancer 
(ages 16, 17 and 18) from the Agency School at Fort Apache and Whiteriver, 
Arizona; one tribal medicine man and the Boys' Adviser together with two as- 
sistants, one acting as coach and the other an unusual Indian dancer. Each 
engagement consisted of five Indian acts with the basket ball game. 

What We Carried : Personal eauipraent; all the tribal ceremonial 
paraphernalia we could get hold of in order to present an accurate picture 
of today's Apache Indian life; camping equipment; and handmade trinkets to 
sell. 

How We Financed It: From the beginning of school until we left, 
we created public sentiment through talking and planning; gave four evenings 
of basket ball, charging only the adults; gave one employees' dance; one 
Apache dance; wrote twenty letters securing ten basket ball games to be 
played en route; gave a service club an opportunity to aid - they gave pro- 
ceeds of one movie; sold ice cream during Thanksgiving holidays when the 
milk was not needed in the schools; took kodak pictures, receiving prints 
for one cent each and selling them for five cents each; sold popcorn, cof- 
fee and cakes at entertainments (bought our own corn and coffee) ; accented 
three or four private donations, though not a penny was solicited; and 
collected one-half of the proceeds of the basket ball games en route. We 
made and spent nearly $400.00. 



40 



Points Of Interest And High Spots Of 
The Trip : Coolidge Dam in Arizona; the Great 
Desert in New Mexico; Fort Bliss in El Paso; 
sight-seeing in Juarez, Mexico; the great oil 
fields of Texas around Ranger, Breckenridge and 
Houston; guests of 400 white children for three 
days at the State Home for Children in Waco, 
Texas; week-end at Galveston, Texas on the Gulf 
of Mexico where the hoys went swimming, saw and 
visited ocean liners; theater party in Houston, 
Texas (many others "besides); saw carloads of 
sulphur from the largest mines in the world; 
Texas Centennial grounds at Fort Worth; visited 
Texas' leading colleges and universities; 
visited progressive public schools and out- 
standing public buildings; and spent New Year's 
Day at the Carlsbad Caverns, one of the nation's 
National Parks. And it is needless to say that 
each basket ball game and performance were 
singular experiences in the lives of the Apache 
boys, some of whom had never been beyond the 
bounds of the reservation. 




Apache Devil Dance Was 
Given For Our Hosts in 
Gal ves ton , Texas . 



Outcomes Of The Trip : Realized their 
major aims; had the best time of their lives, 
so they said; and paved the way for future 
trips. Our audiences were more than well-pleased, 

with our show. We received numerous invitations to visit private homes of 
kindly people; some we accepted where our time would permit. We won six 
basket ball games; lost five. 



INDIAN LANGUAGE USED DURING WORLD WAR 



"During the World War the Germans often tapped the telephone systems 
of the Allies and secured valuable information. But one day, new and strange 
sounds began to come over the wires, baffling code experts and linguists until 
the Armistice. It was the language of a group of American Indians who had 
been taught to send and receive the messages." Reprinted from " Keeping Up 
With T he World " - July 4, 1936 i ssue of Co llier's . 



41 



REVIVAL OF OLD WINNEBAGO ARTS 
By Carrie A. Lyford, Associate Supervisor of Home Economics 




Application Of Ribbon 
Work On Costumes 



Some time after the Europeans came to this 
country, the Indian women of the Algonquin tribes 
began to use ribbon work or apolique for the decora- 
tion of their costumes and blankets. The develop- 
ment of the art of applique led to the use of some 
interesting designs based on the double-curve motif 
and to a skill in fine needlecraft that is recognized 
as characteristic of the women of the woodlands sec- 
tion. 

The Winnebago women who followed the prac- 
tices of their Algonquin neighbors were especially 
fond of the aoplique work and used it on their cos- 
tumes in preference to the beadwork that had sup- 
planted the quill work among the other tribes. OM 
pictures of the early Winnebago usually show much 
appliqu^ work in interesting design. Costume's done 
in applique are still treasured for use at the annual 
pow-wows and at special programs. 



During the past summer an interesting re- 
vival of the art of applique was carried out among 
the women on the Winnebago Reservation at Winnebago in Nebraska, under the 
direction of Miss Mabel Morrow, Director of Arts and Crafts at the Plandreau 
Indian High School at Flandreau, South Dakota. In her meetings with the wom- 
en Miss Morrow encouraged them to cut out free-hand designs as a basis for 
their work as their mothers and grandmothers had always done. Interesting 
variations of the double curve pattern which was characteristic of the work 
of the Algonquin tribes resulted and the designs showed that the women were 
familiar with older pieces of the ribbon work. Because of the expense in- 
volved in the use of ribbons the project was carried out in inexpensive wash- 
able cotton materials of fast color; the designs being applied to table run- 
ners with gratifying results. At the close of the course an interesting array 
of colorful table runners suitable for use in the sun parlors and the summer 
cottages was put on display. 

Applique* work was originally applied with the finest feather stitch 
known among the Winnebagos as "the apolique stitch." Only one of the older 
women attempted to use this stitch. The younger women all used the easier 
blind stitch or slip stitch; most of them showing considerable skill in their 
work. 



42 



When the table runners were displayed the older Indians expressed 
admiration for the simpler and more sturdy type of design which they said was 
like that which they formerly used. The fancier or more flowery designs were 
less admired "by the older people. 

While one group of women was working on the applique, Miss Morrow 
was helping another group master the woven sashes which were worked out in 
the arrow design T an art in which the Winnebagos were especially proficient. 
Woven scarfs of looser texture and simpler design are made today hut the mak- 
ing of the closely woven sash with the well-worked out arrow design is an art 
that has been almost forgotten. 

A keen interest was aroused in mastering the technique and the 
beauty of the completed sash repaid the worker for her time and effort. Should 
a market for such work be available, the Winnebago women will find pleasure 
in adding to their meager incomes through a production of these sashes which 
are attractive, both in color and design. 

************* 



USE OP STEEL TRAPS FORBIDDEN ON INDIAN LANDS 



The Office of Indian Affairs has declared a holiday for wild life 
on Indian lands. Only wild animals harmful to crops, domestic animals and 
gardens will be exterminated hereafter. 

Commissioner Collier on February 16 issued an order abolishing use 
of steel- jawed traps in the I.S.C.W. predatory animal control program on In- 
dian lands. The modern trans which will be -put into use employ a noose or 
chain instead of the old-fashioned steel jaws, catch and hold the animal 
securely without injury. There is no danger under the new trapping method 
of the animal's being mangled or injured and it will be possible to mete out 
a sure, clean death to the oredatory thief. 

The recent order is a practical as well as humane step, the Indian 
Service pointed out. Under the old system of trapping it was impossible not 
to kill harmless and useful animals along with the predatory animals. "Settled 
regions must be kept free of serious animal damage to crops, yet wilderness 
areas should be filled with wild life to yield their own valuable products 
in fur or in hunting and recreation," Commissioner Collier said. "Such a 
nrogram can be furthered by use of the new trap. Scientific control and 
distribution of animal population will be helped by use of the new trap. Val- 
uable and interesting snecies of fur bearing or other animals can be caught 
with such traps, where they are locally too numerous and are damaging the 
crops and released uninjured to add to the wild life of depleted wilderness 
areas," he said. 

43 



NEZ PERCE JOSEPH - A BOOK REVIEW 
By Allan G. Harper, Field Administrator in Charge of Indian Organization 

Chief Joseph - The Biography Of A Great Indian, By Chester Anders Fee. 
Foreword lay Colonel Charles Erskine Scott Wood. Wilson - Erickson 
New York, 1936. $4.00. 




The March Of The Nez Perce 

Chief Joseph was profoundly a man of peace. Circumstances made him 
a great military leader. The author of this fascinating biography, Chester 
Anders Fee, ra.nks him with Lee, Jackson and Grant. Of all Indian chiefs, he 
believes only Tecumseh was his equal. 

Yet when Joseph took the war path in 1877, he did so reluctantly 
and with no heart for the business. Prior to that year he had never set 
foot upon any field of battle. His tribe, the Nez Perce, had always taken 
pride in their record of peaceful relations with the white man. Bonneville 
said of the Nez Perce that they were "like a nation of saints." Down to 
1877, only one white man had been killed by a Nez Perce; at the same time 
the record showed 25 to 30 Nez Perce killed by whites. Punishment of white 



44 



misdeeds went unpunished. Encroaching on Indian lands and \itterly indiffer- 
ent to rendering justice to the Indian when it was his due, white "settlers 
had given enormous provocation to bloody conflict. But the Nez Perce were 
a patient people. 

Joseph was willing to make the supreme sacrifice of abandoning his 
homeland in the Wallowa Valley in Oregon at the belligerent insistence of 
the Government rather than go to war. In fact he was in the -orocess of re- 
moving his followers to the Lapwai Reservation when a few warriors of another 
Nez Perce chief, 'iVhite Bird, precipitated the conflict by their revengeful 
depredations among the Salmon River settlers. The frontier went aflame. 
Only because he believed that it would have been impossible to confine just 
punishment to the guilty persons concerned did Joseph cast his lot with the 
others and become their chief leader in the sanguinary war which ensued. At 
that very moment the white settlers needed Joseph's calm leadership and peace- 
ful intentions to prevent the conflagration. But the failure of justice and 
fair dealing over so many years rose to turn him into the white man's enemy. 

The background of this war between a peaceful tribe of Indians and 
the United States, is of far greater importance to us today than Joseph's 
brilliant military accomplishment and fortunately Mr. Fee gives this back- 
ground with infinite care. When the Treaty of 1855 was made with the Nez 
Perce, the great chief's father, Old Joseph, a man of wisdom and integrity, 
successfully insisted uoon the inclusion of the Wallowa Valley within the 
area reserved for the Indians. Old Joseph fought for the Wallowa, because 
it had always been the homeland of his people. 

When the old chief died in 1872, he swore his son never to surrender 
it. "Always remember," he said, "that your father never sold his cquntry." 
He was referring specifically to a second treaty made in 1863, by which the 
Nez Perce were supposed to have ceded a large territory including the Wallowa 
Valley to the United States. The Indians were to go on reservations set aside 
for them, which some of them did. But not Chief Joseph and his people. They 
stayed in the Wallowa, attempting by neaceful means to make the Government 
understand their rights. But the Government was blind to Indian rights where 
the land hunger of the white man, distilled through the politics of the time, 
was concerned. 

It failed completely to understand that a. majority of the chiefs 
could not, in Indian custom, bind another chief or.his people. The Wallowa 
belonged to Joseph's band and the other chiefs could not sell or give it 
away. There was no such thing as a "Head Chief", an utterly foreign notion 
which white people persisted in believing. 

What took place in 1863 was pointedly illustrated by the great chief. 
"Sux>T>ose," he said "a white man should come to me and say, 'Joseph, I like 
your horses and I want to buy them.' I say to him, 'No, my horses suit me; 
I will not sell them.' Then he goes to my neighbor and says to him, 'Joseph 
has some good horses. I want to buy them but he refuses to sell.' My 

45 



CHIEF JOSEPH AT NESPELEM 




46 



neighbor answers, 'Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph's horses.' The 
white man returns to me and says, 'Joseph, I have bought your horses and you 
must let me have them. 1 If we sold our land to the Government that is how 
we sold it . " 

Joseph had an almost Biblical manner of speaking. "The white people 
have too many chiefs. They do not understand each other. They do not talk 
alike" - "Big name often stands on little legs" - "Cursed by the hand that 
scalps the reputation of the dead" - "Fire water courage ends in trembling 
fear" are some of his sayings. Joseph had that ability which Emerson so 
much admired - of packing his thought into a telegraphic mold. 

His greatness as a leader in the arts of peace has been overshadowed 
by his reputation as a military strategist. And in this respect his prowess 
has been universally acknowledged. Facing him in the Nez Perce war of 1877 
was General 0. 0. Howard, the sixth ranking officer of the United States 
Army at the end of the Civil War. The "Praying General", as Howard was 
nicknamed, had nearly all of the military advantages - armaments, fresh troops, 
friendly territory, supplies. For four months he pursued Joseph over a trail 
that stretched IB'00 miles from Oregon to the Bear Paw Mountains in Montana. 
The course was through the wildest country in the United States. 

Joseph carried with him his women, children and all their earthly 
possessions. He had to seek his food as he went, care for and carry his 
wounded and bury his dead - all through an unfriendly country, most of which 
was wholly unknown to him. He was even successful in making truces with the 
whites as he retreated to Canada where he hoped to persuade the United States 
to permit his return to the Wallowa. Throughout he restrained his inflamed 
followers from committing unnecessary acts of war on non-combatants.. His 
warriors killed no women, leaving a "clean trail." 

Joseph was taken by surprise in the Bear Paws - within 40 miles of 
his destination, by General Miles, who marched from his post at Tongue River. 
The question of whether Joseph believed he was in Canada has never been 
definitely determined. Mr. Fee indicts Joseph only on the score of failure 
to make certain of his location. If Joseph had taken the usual caution of 
maintaining rear scouts, he would never have been taken. 

Over his long retreat Joseph exhibited amazing military ability 
which left his professional opponents stunned with surprise -and admiration. 
The marksmanship of his warriors shamed the United States Army. At the 
White Bird Canyon, Big Hole, Camas Meadow and Canyon Creek encounters he 
revealed a mastery of military tactics of the first order. On the banks of 
the Clearwater, he outclassed Howard in a stand-up fight. He got through 
the Lolo Pass by an extremely clever manoeuver and with a skill which his 
pursuers could not imitate. Joseph's explanation was very sinrole: "The 
Great Spirit puts it into the heart and head of men to know how to defend 
himself." As Mr. Fee says, Joseph out of his own intelligence devised 



47 



manoeuvers and operations that had taken the white man long years of mili- 
tary experience and tradition to conceive and perfect. 

The epilogue to this saga of heroism was of a piece with the 
events which led up to it - the back trail was one of bitter tears. Contrary 
to the promises which conditioned his surrender (Joseph could have escaped 
had he been willing to leave behind his wounded, old women and children), 
Joseph and his neople were not allowed to return to the country from which 
they came. Instead they were exiled in Indian Territory for seven years 
where they were almost completely annihilated by disease. Finally wh*en they 
were permitted to return, it was to the Colville Reservation in Washington, 
far from the Wallowa, and not to Fort Lapwai which was comparatively close. 
For Joseph this was the unkindest cut of all. 

Joseph's history, as Colonel Charles Erskine Scott Wood says in 
his foreword, "shows in one concentrated example the measure of justice 
dispensed to the natives of the New World by our civilization." In the 
light of this past record, is it any wonder that the Colville. Reservation 
rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934? Yet if Joseph were alive 
today, would he have counseled his peoule to reject a law - the first in 
our history - to give land to the Indians; not take it away? I hardly think 
so. 

Mr. Fee's biography of Chief Josenh is a merited tribute to a 
great Indian. It will be a welcome addition to the growing body of Indian 
literature, based on modern research and scholarship. If I could have my 
way, it would be "required reading" in all our Indian schools and by all 
the personnel of the Indian Service. The volume is interestingly illustrated 
with photographs and maps. 




By Horace Valle, Acoma Indian At U. S. Indian School 

Santa Fe, N. M. 



48 



PROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



Fire Hazard Red-action And Truck 
Trail Maintenance At Keshena (Wis- 
consin) Now that winter has arrived 
the crews are working on winter 
projects. The two principal nroj- 
ects this winter are fire hazard re- 
duction and truck trail maintenance 
in the nature of graveling. 

The graveling crew has had some 
trouble with the pit freezing, "but 
they have been able to get out a 
good number of loads daily. 

Between twenty and twenty-five 
men have been employed on trail-side 
clean-up . The snow has not been 
very deep so they have been doing a 
real good job of clean-up. They are 
working along those trails where all 
the trees have been fire killed. 
Walter Ridlington , Project Manager . 

Well Building At Ppjtawatomi 
( Kansas ) We began this week on a 
new well project which has recently 
been approved. Two crews of men are 
working at this type of work while a 
third crew is quarrying rock for the 
walls. We hope to dig 11 wells on 
the Potawatomi Reservation within 
the next two months . 

An interesting feature of the 
activities here, is the interest be- 
ing taken in music. 15 men attended 
a recent rehearsal under adverse 
weather conditions. The men are do- 
ing some entertaining at the local 
public schools. P. Everett Sperry . 

Work In Spite Of Weather At 
Hoopa Valley ( California ) Hoopa had 



its biggest snowstorm in years dur- 
ing the past week. However, the 
I.E.C.W. crew kept on working and 
made good progress on all projects. 
The two large projects under con- 
struction at the present time are the 
Subsistence Garden project at Camp- 
bell Creek and the Bloody Camp Truck 
Trail. The Irrigation crew worked 
the entire week and is making very 
good progress. Mr. Wicks, who was 
at the Los Angeles Irrigation Office, 
has returned to direct the work on 
this project, and expressed much sat- 
isfaction at the progress being made 
by the men on this project. Patrick 
I. Rogers . 

Various Projects At Seminole 
( Florida ) The work on the range fence 
consisted largely of cutting, haul- 
ing and piling 551 posts, which will 
be used for the construction of range 
feace on land now being bought for 
use by the Seminole Indians. This 
fence will not be constructed until 
title to the land has been obtained 
by the Government. In addition to 
cutting and hauling posts, 120 rods 
of range fence posts were set on land 
already owned by the Government. 

4-jj man- days were used on range 
revegetation work. More work of this 
nature will be done as soon as addi- 
tional rains fall in the area where 
this work is needed. B. L. Yates. 

Fence Building At Pima ( Arizona ) 
All field work in progress went much 
better during the past week as the 
weather conditions were much better 
than for some time past, although very 



49 



cold for this district. The Ak Chin 
fence job is moving right along. A- 
bout three miles of fence was put in 
place during the week. It will not 
be long before the outside cattle 
cannot get into the reservation. 
Clyde H. Packer , Pro.ject Manager . 

Progress On Proj e cts At Yakima 
(WashingtonT" The weather this week 
was warmer, and production was 
speeded uo considerably. On Proj- 
ect 105, the graveling of the Mt. 
Adams Highway from Mill Creek to 01- 
ney Creek, hundreds of yards of 
gravel are being moved daily. Two 
bulldozers are being used. Both are 
Caterpillar Fifties. One works high 
on the hill, and bulldozes the gravel 
over the bank, where it falls into 
the lower pit. The second tractor 
takes it from there and shoves it 
into the loading chute. A small 
crew on the trail levels the gravel 
as the trucks dump it. The trail is 
being covered to a depth of ten inches 
and a width of eighteen feet. 

Two sets of monopoly have been 
acquired, and are becoming quite pop- 
ular with the men. F. Sanders . 

Timber Reconnaissance Survey At 
Coeur d' Alene ( Idaho ) The cruising 
and mapping have been moving along 
at a very satisfactory pace, when it 
is considered that the majority of 
the men have never done any work of 
this kind. The tribal reserves are 
scattered out so that it is hard to 
get the control lines run so that 
they will be of the best advantage. 

We are working the more remote 
reserves at the present time so that 
when the roads thaw out we will be 
able to stay on the highway as dur- 
ing the snring thaw the side trails 



are next to impassable. At this time 
the men must leave rather early in 
order to reach the reserves in time 
to get any work done. Harold Wing . 

Erosion Contro l At Mission (Cal- 
if ornia ) Notwithstanding some bad 
weather the crew managed to get in 
some good work. 

About 400 feet of dyke was com- 
pleted this week, constructed in the 
following manner. Iron pipes eight 
feet in length are placed four feet 
in the ground and eight feet apart. 
Then hog wire, four feet in width is 
tied to the pines. Then brush is 
placed behind and covered with dirt. 

These dykes of which there axe 
two, are placed in V shaioe in the 
field and will catch the drainage and 
divert it over a spillway consisting 
of an arched concrete dam. Leading 
from the dam is a drain and below the 
drain are rock check dams to stop the 
cutting or eroding force of the water. 
L._R. Parks . 

Adult Ediication Program At Rose - 
bud ( South Dakota ) The Adult Educa- 
tional Program of ECW and the Agency 
enters approximately 20 communities 
covering the entire Rosebud Reserva- 
tion. On the Yankton Reserve the same 
program is in effect. There are 34 
speakers scheduled for meetings with 
two appearing on each program. 

ECW has three participants in 
the urogram who speak on the ECW or- 
ganization and the general program 
being conducted. Topics discussed 
pertain to the fields of the men 
and women themselves. This adult 
program hopes to bring the Indian 
closer to Civil Service workers so 
that he can understand more clearly 



50 



what their dutie's involve. Each 
meeting usually brings forth numer- 
ous questions for the audience who 
has interested itself in the meeting. 
An interpreter remains on hand to 
exolain to those who do not under- 
stand English. Thomas Owl . 

Report From Pipestone ( Minne - 
sota ) The I.E.C.W. Sioux Indian 
crew at the Pipestone Reservation 
has done a great deed by clearing 
all the roads drifted with snow this 
week. 

The Indians on the Pipestone 
Reservation take great interest in 
the new Indian Shrine Park. In this 
park the old Pipestone quarries are 
located. The red pipestone that is 
taken from the quarries by the In- 
dians is made into peacepipes. The 
peacepipe was used by the red men 
many centuries ago, and smoked by 
the chiefs of all red men to make 
peace among all tribes of Indians. 
George R. Brown . 

Safety Meeting At Flathead ( Mon - 
tana ) A safety meeting, conducted by 
Eugene Mwillet of the Agency was held 
in camp Wednesday. All committee men 
were present. Organization and vari- 
ous tyoes of accidents were discussed. 

The camp basket ball team was 
transported to Diron for practice on 
Monday night. The prospects for a 
good team are bright. A basket ball 
meeting was held Thursday night at 
which time a captain and manager was 
elected. After the meeting plays 
were worked out and the team drilled 
in the recreation hall. 

Arrangements are being made to 
hold a first-aid class here in camp. 
The class will be instructed by one 
of the enrollees who has completed 
the necessary training for first aid 
instructors. Harry Panchet . 



Tree Planting At Taholah (Wash- 
ington) Work on Project 58 during 
the week consisted of planting seed- 
lings to tribal cut-over land. These 
seedlings were taken from the ECW 
nursery and were for the most part, 
about two years of a^e and aotiroxima.t- 
ely six or eight inches in height. 
Spruce and fir seedlings are being 
planted under this project. Paul 
Brodersen . 

Work On Drift Fence At Mescalero 
( New Mexico ) We have at last come 
within reach of the truck trail. This 
saves us from walking through brush, 
as well as saving the post cutters 
from packing or carrying posts on 
their shoulders. This method of 
carrying posts is rather risky be- 
cause of snow and slippery condi- 
tions. Now we are able to drive the 
trucks right up to the fence line 
with our posts and wire, saving a 
lot of hard work for the crew. J. A. 
Montoya . 

Fence Building At Colorado River 
( Arizona ) This week the days are 
pleasant, and the fence building is 
almost completed. It may be completed 
this week. The riders are reads'" to 
round up the cattle this week and the 
fence crew will join them as soon as 
the fence is completed. Lute Wilson . 

Fores t Stand Improvemen t At Sac 
And Fox ( Iowa ) Forest Stand Improve- 
ment is being done in the plantations 
which were set out 21 years ago. Jack, 
Scotch, White and Norway Pines were 
planted as a soil erosion control 
measure. They now average 3 to 7 
inches in diameter, and 12 to 36 feet 
in height. Gullies had been planted 
with cottonwoods and Black Locust. 
Since erosion has been completely 
checked, the hardwoods are being cut 
down. R. W. He 1 1 wig . 



51 




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